Digestive system – Dog
A dog digestive system is different than a human’s and consequently dogs eat and transform the food differently than us. This is important to know and understand so that you can feed your dog properly, with the accurate diet and be informed if something goes wrong.
In humans, the mouth, teeth and saliva play an important role in the digestion of food. In canines, this is not quite similar. Dogs use their mouths to bite off and chew big pieces and to eat rapidly. Dogs have hinged jaws and large teeth, designed to ingest big portions of meat, bones and fat products that are usually a part of the dog diet.
Oesophagus to Stomach
The food passes through the oesophagus on its way to the stomach. As the mouth is not actually a part of the digestive process, the stomach is indeed more vital to the digestion of a dog’s food.
After food reaches the dog’s stomach it is processed with a high amount of hydrochloric acid. This is an important phase because this permits the breakdown of the large fragments of protein and bones that dogs swallows. Dogs also can regurgitate naturally the food. This instinct which allows them to eliminate the food that has not been processed properly, then to swallow it again.
Stomach to Small Intestine
After food has been transformed in the stomach due to the hydrochloric acid, it then goes through to the small intestine in the liquid form. The small intestin is the place where the main part of the digestion happens and where the food is assimilated into nutrients for the dog’s body.
Small Intestine to Large Intestine
The food which wasn’s assimilated in the small intestine passes through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last digestive segment before the waste is passed through rectum in the form of faeces mehr infos erhalten.
In fact the dog possesses the shortest digestive tract of mammals and it takes mainly 8-9 hours for the entire digestive procedure. Indeed, the time is smaller for puppies, as they don’t have the mature system of young and adult dogs.
You should be familiar with your dog’s eating and pooping habits as well. If your dog is acting out of sorts, or is not eating or pooping as usual, there is probably something going wrong inside.
Most dogs experience some gas, just as humans do, but particularly unpleasant gas is usually an indication of a poor diet. This can cause other problems so be consistent with your dog’s diet and feeding habits.
Digestive system – Cat
Most cats consider the food pretty high important so sometimes owners use food to bribe their cats; others use it to get their cats’ attention.
Beside from the psychological factors, food fulfils a cat’s need for nutrition. The digestive system begins to work as food enters the cat’s mouth.
The cat digestive system involves the tubular alimentary tract, which runs from the mouth to the rectum, as well as the liver and pancreas. During the digestion cycle, complex chemical processes take place. Enzymes trigger the breakdown of large foodstuffs into simpler compounds that are tiny enough to cross cell membranes. These simpler compounds are the nutrients the cells need for energy and proper function. The nutrients are proteins and amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and lipids, minerals, vitamins and water.
The best way to understand how the cat digestive system works is to follow food as it progresses through the system. The cat grabs the food with its teeth and lips. In the mouth, saliva moistens and lubricates the food so it’s more easily swallowed.
This differs from humans because human saliva contains enzymes that start the food breakdown process right away. The tongue then pushes food back through the pharynx into the oesophagus. Located mainly in the chest cavity, the oesophagus is the part of the alimentary canal that connects the mouth to the stomach. Food immediately moves from the oesophagus into the stomach.
The stomach is the body’s adjustable reservoir for food and liquids. Food that reaches the stomach mixes with gastric secretions. Glands secrete hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes which start the food breakdown process.
Other glands secrete mucus that thinly coats the mucosa (the alimentary tract’s lining), protecting it from damaging acid and enzymes. Once food has been mixed and treated with the acid and enzymes, it passes into the intestinal tract for final digestion and absorption in the cat digestive system.
Continuing on the path of the cat digestive system is the three part small intestine. The shortest segment, which receives the outflow from the stomach, is the duodenum. As food passes through the duodenum, it mixes with bile.
Bile is a fluid that neutralizes the stomach acid, emulsifies and helps absorb fat, and carries some waste. Bile is created by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and passes to the duodenum via the bile duct.
As the bile mixed with food now passes through the duodenum, pancreatic enzymes get added. The pancreas runs alongside the duodenum and empties its enzymes into the intestines through the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic secretions also neutralize stomach acid, and enzymes aid the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Without these enzymes, the body would be unable to absorb nutrients because they would not be broken down enough to pass through the intestinal mucosa into the blood
Following the duodenum is the jejunum, the small intestine’s largest segment. The jejunum is the cat digestive system tracts’ most nutrient-absorptive portion. Capillaries in the microvilla carry nutrients to larger veins that pool to form the portal vein. The portal vein carries the nutrients to the liver for further filtering and processing.
The liver has many roles, not all related to digestion. Some of its most important functions are synthesis of proteins, storing carbohydrates, fat metabolism and removing old red blood cells and waste products from the blood.
Materials that pass through the jejunum that are not absorbed here continue on into the ileum, which links the small intestine to the large intestine, continuing on the path of the cat digestive system.
The first part of the large intestine is the cecum. It is analogous to the human’s appendix in that it is a diverticulum without an integral function. The cecum leads into the colon, which is the site of water resorption and faecal formation. As the colon passes through the pelvic canal, it becomes the rectum.
Not every nutrient or drop of water is extracted from food as it passes through the alimentary canal; some parts are non-digestible. These leftover components of foods make up faeces. The rectum stores faeces until they are passed out of the body through the anal canal and anus.
Owner observation is important to determining causes of gastrointestinal problems. Most owners are familiar with the posture and sound their cats make when spitting up a hairball, a normal cause of vomiting. Eating something they shouldn’t is another cause of vomiting or diarrhoea, or you can have cat like our Max that is simply a pig and wolfs food too fast.
Food intolerance can also trigger vomiting or diarrhoea. Owners should make note of what foods they offer, including brand, type and flavour. In this case, controlling gastrointestinal upset may be as easy as removing one specific food type from the cat’s diet.